The Foundation Prayers in Catholic Life Include:

The Mass

For this, drive to your nearest Catholic church, but don't take communion unless you're free from mortal sin, though contrition, and absolution at your last confession, or possibly perfect contrition, which plans to go to confession as soon as is viable, when there is a vital need, and when you have been through initiation, or your first holy communion, both of which are official ceremonies, requiring belief in the real presence of the Lord's Body, Blood, soul and Divinity in the Host.

Our Father

"Our Father, Who art in heaven,
Hallowed be Thy Name.
Thy Kingdom come.
Thy Will be done, on earth as it is in Heaven. Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive those who trespass against us.
And lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil. Amen."

http://www.ewtn.com/Devotionals/prayers/pater2.htm

Hail Mary

"Hail Mary Full of Grace,

The Lord is With Thee,"

 (Quotes the Angel Gabriel speaking to Mary as recorded in the bible)

"Blessed Art Thou Among Women,

And Blessed in the Fruit of Thy Womb, Jesus,"

Quotes Mary's Cousin Elizabeth, when she greets her as seen in the Bible.

"Holy Mary, mother of God,

Pray for us sinners,

Now and at the Hour of our Death"

(References old testament prophesies, Gospel of John chapter I, and Revelations / Apocalypse)

Glory Be

Glory be to the Father

And to the Son

and to the Holy Spirit,

Amen

Apostles' Creed

"I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of Heaven and earth;
and in Jesus Christ, His only Son Our Lord,
Who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried.
He descended into Hell; the third day He rose again from the dead;
He ascended into Heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of God, the Father almighty; from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead.
 I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body and life everlasting.
Amen.
"

http://www.ewtn.com/Devotionals/prayers/creed2.htm

Nicene Creed

"We believe (I believe) in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, and born of the Father before all ages. (God of God) light of light, true God of true God. Begotten not made, consubstantial to the Father, by whom all things were made. Who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven. And was incarnate of the Holy Ghost and of the Virgin Mary and was made man; was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate, suffered and was buried; and the third day rose again according to the Scriptures. And ascended into heaven, sits at the right hand of the Father, and shall come again with glory to judge the living and the dead, of whose Kingdom there shall be no end. And (I believe) in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of life, who proceeds from the Father (and the Son), who together with the Father and the Son is to be adored and glorified, who spoke by the Prophets. And one holy, catholic, and apostolic Church. We confess (I confess) one baptism for the remission of sins. And we look for (I look for) the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. Amen."

 http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11049a.htm

A compilation of the  Council of Nice A.D. 325 and the Council of Constantinople A.D. 381.

Stations of the Cross 

Ritual involving different stations, recalling the suffering of Jesus, the Catholic Christ, before, and during the his death.

 

c.f.

http://www.usccb.org/nab/stations.htm

http://www.ewtn.com/library/PRAYER/NEWSTATN.htm 

http://www.vatican.va/news_services/liturgy/2005/documents/ns_lit_doc_20050325_via-crucis_en.html 

http://www.ewtn.com/devotionals/Stations/face.htm 



The Rosary

As Linked to below

Rosary

The Rosary is a prayer devotion with a firm backing of Jesus' mother from the miracles, and apparations recorded by thousands at Fatima.


It involves potent promises to those who pray it.

http://search.scripturelink.net/search?cx=001763116401597409521%3Af7idlv7awxw&cof=FORID%3A11&q=Rosary+promises&sa=Search#1410

A method of praying it is available here

http://www.newadvent.org/images/rosary.pdf

http://www.ewtn.com/Devotionals/prayers/rosary/how_to.htm  

http://www.sancta.org/rosary/how.html 

"What is the Rosary?
What's the history of the Rosary?
Promises of the Rosary
Questions about the Rosary
Addressing objections to the Holy Rosary with answers "

http://www.askacatholic.com/_WhatsNew/feature_pages/RosaryForProtestantsProgram.cfm

History of the Rosary

http://www.tfp.org/student_action/student_resources/prayers/rosary_history.htm

 


Novenas

A novena is a prayer to be prayed every day for nine days, with a specific pertition. These prayers are powerful, as with repeating them. Often they are well written, and fun to use many times, even as daily prayers.

Novenas- an explanation

http://www.ewtn.com/Devotionals/prayers/novena.htm

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11141b.htm 

http://search.scripturelink.net/search?cx=001763116401597409521%3Af7idlv7awxw&cof=FORID%3A11&q=Novenas&sa=Search#1297

Some Novenas

Divine Mercy- Saint Faustina

http://www.ewtn.com/devotionals/mercy/novena.htm

Our Lady of Lourdes (Mary)

 http://www.ewtn.com/Devotionals/novena/lourdes.htm

Novena to the Holy Spirit

http://www.scborromeo.org/prayers/novenahs.htm

Our Favourite Novena

 http://www.ewtn.com/Devotionals/novena/philomena.htm

 

Divine Mercy Chaplet

http://www.ewtn.com/Devotionals/mercy/dmmap.htm 

http://thedivinemercy.org/message/devotions/praythechaplet.php 

Novena of the Divine Mercy Chaplet

http://www.ewtn.com/devotionals/mercy/novena.htm

 

Some other Catholic Prayer Devotions

http://search.scripturelink.net/search?cx=001763116401597409521%3Af7idlv7awxw&cof=FORID%3A11&q=Prayer+Devotions&sa=Search#1645  

http://www.ewtn.com/Devotionals/prayer_saint.htm